The Importance Of Sports Equipment

Sports are a very popular interest worldwide as there are many varieties people can choose from to indulge themselves in. Some people are interested in football while others like basketball. Some love the water and prefer swimming, while others like to speed inside a racing car. It doesn’t matter what type of sport you like to play as long as you realize the importance of the equipment and apparel required to play these sports. For playing football you need a football and two goal posts. Individually you may need a good pair of shoes and something to keep sweat off your eyes as it drips from your forehead. It is not so easy to indulge in any sports activity if you don’t have the appropriate sports equipment. The better your sports equipment is, the better will be your game.

The first step to have a good sporting experience is to buy a equipment that is of good quality in terms of its strength and is light in weight. For instance, if the racket with which you play badminton is not of appropriate weight your hand may not respond in the ideal fashion while playing the game. You might have to risk losing your game. But if you hold the racket before making a purchase and gauge as to what weight and length suits your hand the most, you will be able to take a good decision. Your decision at this point in time will go a long way to support your actual game.

In a game such as football, the goal keeper, for instance, would need equipment such as a helmet, shoulder pads and knee pads. You also need to think of the quality here too! For his own sake the goal keeper needs to get a hair cut before the game. The helmet should be fitting the goal keeper properly. The helmet should be refitted if the hair style of the goal keeper has changed. The front portion of the helmet should just protect the head and not become a hindrance by covering the forehead including the eyebrows. The ear holes also should match up with player’s ears. Move the helmet while the goal keeper is wearing it so that any displacement of the helmet can be rectified before the game starts.

Mouth guards are also considered another sporting equipment that should be checked for cleaning and fitting. They should be boiled to refit on the mouth of the player. Shoulder pads allow the goal keeper adequate amount of mobility. The back and front of the shoulder pads should be able to cover the shoulder blades and pectorals respectively.

Athletes should try and wear T-shirts that prevent occurrence of rashes and skin irritations arising from rough straps. Most sports equipments are of protective kind. The primary and the protective equipment are equally important because as the game progresses players become quite aggressive in an attempt to win the game. If these sports equipment are not maintained the players are bound to injure themselves.

Source by Stephanie Ly

Toenail Rot: Toe Nail Fungus and How to Treat It

You can see why people call it “toenail rot,” even though that is not the correct medical term for the condition. Nail fungus can make your toe nails and even your fingernails look like they are rotting away when the nails turn an unsightly yellow and become unnaturally thick. An infection of the nails by fungi (called onychomycosis in medical terminology) is not simply a cosmetic problem; it is not inherited; and it is contagious. A nail fungus infection must be taken seriously. It can be cured permanently if it is treated correctly, but if it is ignored or simply covered up, it can do substantial damage that may be permanent.

Fungal infections can occur in both the fingernails and in the toenails, but toe infections are more common. A fungal infection of the nails is usually easy to recognize by thickened, brittle nails that lose their luster and become discolored – yellow, brown, black or even green. “Toe nail rot” is not an accurate description, even though that is what it may appear as to the toe nail fungus patient.

The fungi that cause the infection invade the skin through small cuts or separations between the nail and the nail bed. Infections usually take hold after repeated exposure to warm, moist environments. Sources of infection can include public showers and swimming pools, old shoes with closed toes, or even home showers that are not cleaned often enough and that are used by other people with fungal infections. Athlete’s foot is caused by the same types of fungi from the same sources as the fungi that infect the nails, but athlete’s foot infections are limited to just the skin of the feet.

Fungal infections of the nails can spread from one nail to all of the nails, and the longer the infection grows, the harder it is to cure. IF YOU NOTICE A NAIL FUNGUS PROBLEM EARLY ENOUGH, YOU MIGHT BE ABLE TO SUCCESSFULLY TREAT IT WITH A NATURAL REMEDY LIKE TEA TREE OIL. HOWEVER, because of the damage that can result from long-term infection, it is very important to seek medical help and to obtain access to prescription drugs rather than just relying on home remedies, IF YOU ARE NOT QUICKLY SUCCESSFUL WITH A NATURAL REMEDY.

A doctor can prescribe one of several medicines you can take in pill form. These include itraconazole, fluconazole and terbinafine. Remember that it takes many weeks of daily treatment to cure a nail fungus infection with oral medication, so do not stop taking the prescribed medicine early just because your nails start to look better and you think your “nail rot” is cured. The appearance of the nail can improve even though the infection is still present. For a permanent “toenail rot” cure, the medicine must be taken long enough to kill all of the fungus. Other medical treatments that your doctor might recommend include daily use of an antifungal nail lacquer (ciclopirox), or a topical cream with an active ingredient such as econazole nitrate.

In severe “toenail rot” cases, the infected nail may have to be surgically removed to get rid of the infection. So, remember that early nail fungus treatment is always best, followed by care to prevent re-infection by avoiding repeated exposure to the sources of infection.

Source by Rob Lester

What Do Turtles Eat and Drink – What Everyone Should Know About Turtle’s Diets

Most people know what turtles are. Little shell backed reptiles that often live in lakes, streams and dank vegetation. When asked what do turtles eat and drink these same people are far less knowledgeable.

Turtles are kind of an exotic pet. They are not as widely understood as dogs, cats and other more common house pets. Turtles eat different kinds of foods than the main stream pets, but they require a balanced diet none the less.

What Do Turtles Eat?

For proteins turtles will eat just about anything they can catch and subdue. Good examples are insects, like worms, slugs, certain spiders and flying insects.

Depending on the size of the turtle it may even go for larger prey. Some land turtles have been known to eat small mice and frogs. Turtles will eat just about anything that is edible.

Most turtles prefer to eat in water. This is not only because they feel more at home, but the water aids their oral digestion. Turtles do not produce saliva, so the water acts as a way of breaking food up easier for digestion.

Aquatics are often known to hunt small fish. Minnows, crayfish, goldfish and anything else in the “feeder fish” section of the pet store make tasty protein packed turtle treats.

All turtles need a lot of vegetation for essential vitamins and minerals. With the exception of baby turtles most adults have at least 60% of their diet as plant life. Adolescent turtles are mostly carnivorous. It is believed that they are stock piling protein for growth production and shell development.

Most people who own pet turtles feed them a variety of vegetables. These include carrots, sweet potatoes, yams, collard greens, green beans and most other vegetables.

Fruits such as bananas, apples, berries and peaches can make great snacks. These should only be served as treats due to the high levels of natural sugar. Stick to a high vegetable diet.

What Do turtles drink?

Turtles drink the very water they swim in. While swimming or wading they simply drink in a gulp. In nature, all the good bacteria in the water naturally filters out most toxins produced by animal waste. However, in a home tank, a turtle owner must make sure the water is cleaned regularly.

Even if you only own one turtle in a large tank, turtles make a mess with their waste. They usually defecate while eating and they eat in the water. This means that they are defecating in their water frequently.

Once feces and urine are broken down in water they create ammonia, a toxic substance that can cause skin irritation, illness and even death. If the water is not changed a few times a week this could have your pet drinking and swimming in toxic waste.

This is a very broad outline. Turtles are rather versatile animals as far as their diet is concerned. The simplest answer to what do turtles eat and drink would be what ever is around them. In nature turtles can turn just about anything edible into a meal. As a pet a turtle must be provided the same varied diet they would find in nature.

Source by Max Fowler

Fish Oil and Blood Sugar Control – Does it Help Or Hurt?

One common misconception about fish oil (specifically the fatty acids EPA & DHA) is that it improves your blood sugar levels. I love fish oil and it can greatly improve many aspects of your health but the scientific evidence to support the use of fish oil for blood sugar control is just not there. In 2006, nutrition juggernaut, Dr. Alice Lichtenstein (and some others) wrote a review article that focused on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and serum makers (e.g. things in our blood) of cardiovascular disease. One of the areas they looked at was blood sugar control.

Two ways that scientists can quantify the ‘controlling of blood sugar levels’ is through Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels. HbA1c is a long term marker of blood glucose control that is commonly used by physicians to monitor how well their diabetic patients are sticking to their carb controlled diets. Fasting blood sugar is exactly what it sounds like – what your blood sugar levels are when you haven’t eaten for a while (i.e. are fasted); this usually means an overnight fast. The researchers looked at 28 different randomized clinical trials (the best kind of studies for determining cause and effect) and found that fish oil supplementation yielded a wide range of results ranging from a 29mg/dL decrease to a 25mg/dL increase (yes you read that right – increase) in FBS.

The findings surrounding the effects of fish oil supplementation were just as exciting (or NOT exciting) in that here was a small but clinically insignificant impact on HbA1c. This means that from a statistical perspective there was an effect but the effect was so small that it wouldn’t have an impact on your health/life.

After doing some more of what I call “statistical voodoo” the researchers summed up all the research and concluded that fish oil caused a non-significant increase in FBS and HbA1c. So not only does fish oil have no effect on blood sugar control it actually has a minor (very minor) negative effect. As I mentioned at the beginning, I am a big believer in fish oil supplementation and recommend that all my clients supplement with fish oil on a daily basis but taking an EPA/DHA supplement each day in an effort to control blood sugar levels is an exercise in futility.

Source by Michael Roussell

How to Breed Shubunkins Successfully

Shubunkins are very popular amongst fish keepers because their looks increase the attractiveness of the aquarium. In fact they are considered as an asset to the aquarium.

Though they are not among expensive species in the goldfish family, you can make a lot of money if you breed them successfully. Many people try to focus on breeding of koi fish as they are most salable and expensive fish variety. However, as their supply goes up, the prizes tend to stabilize. On the other hand, there are less people breeding Shubunkins. So the demand remains constant. If you can successfully breed them, you can make good money. Shubunkins can also be exported to UK, and for that matter all over Europe because usually there is a shortage in that region.

The perfect method of breeding Shubunkins

You will need 3 ponds for getting good results. If it is difficult to get 3 ponds, you should have at least two. You will naturally need the male and female Shubunkins and they should preferably be of the same size because that will encourage spawning.

First you should provide one big main pond with natural plantation as well as good sheltering areas. All your shubunkins should be kept in that pond. You should observe them very carefully as the females will be pregnant. You can find it out by looking at their stomach which will be large at the bottom. These females will also look fatter. They will start laying eggs soon but you should take the out before they do that. You should shift them to another tank.

In this tank you should introduce male fish of the same size. These fish will fertilize the eggs by releasing a slimy substance on the eggs. This substance is whitish in color. You should provide good plants in this tank so that it is convenient for both male and female Shubunkins to do their job. The females usually prefer to lay eggs at the bottom of a plant and the males prefer to remain in that area during the hatching process.

When you see that the eggs are fertilized, you should remove the male and the female Shubunkins from the tank and place them back in the main tank. Now you should wait for hatching of the eggs so that the tiny babies will come out.

During this whole period the diet of both male and female Shubunkins is important. You should provide a balanced diet as well as sufficient sunlight.

If you are able to manage the third pond, you can shift the babies to that pond. They should be kept there until they grow reasonably large. That will also prevent other fish from attacking them. Successful breeding can take place during April and July.

Once you shift babies into another pond, you have the second pond empty for more spawning.

If you are unable to procure three ponds then you will have to change the process slightly. In that case, you should allow Shubunkins to lay eggs in the main pond and the fertilization process should also take place there. You should provide sufficient plantation and shelters in this pond so that the male fish will not try to eat the eggs. You can also buy breeding strips from the pet shops and introduce them in this pond. The fish will tend to breed on these and you can easily take them out and place in the second pond.

Once the eggs are hatched, the babies will come out in this pond. You can keep them here for some time and once they are reasonably grown, you can shift them to the main pond.

The breeding of Shubunkins is not very difficult process but with systematic and timely actions you can do it successfully.

Source by Chintamani Abhyankar

5 Tips to Stay Positive During Recovery

Overall, the addiction recovery phase for drinking problems is quite a strenuous journey that demands immense will power to get back to a healthier life. It takes an individual’s time and effort to stay sober and control cravings to stay away from alcohol and other addictive substances.

Moreover, one has to also overcome certain situations that tend to force a person to relapse to old drinking habits. In such, and similar other situations, it is essential to ensure that people stay strong and resolute against any obstacles that can digress them from their commitment to quit alcohol addiction.

As such, anyone trying to win the race against alcohol addiction can experience a relapse. Often, negative thinking becomes a major barrier in an individual’s path toward recovery. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the person stays away from any negative influences and remains positive while going through the recovery process.

Here are some simple ways by which a person can stay positive during the difficult phase of recovery:

  1. Stay happy: Overall, happiness is the key to success, even in the case of recovery from an alcohol addiction. This includes staying positive during the whole process. One should indulge in activities and hobbies that interest him or her. This will help the person remain joyful and stay in a better mood.
  2. Exercise regularly: Unlike the popular perception about exercise, it does not necessarily refer to undergoing activities that might exhaust a person completely. It can include a mix of things, including cycling, swimming, jogging, etc. In fact, other relaxation techniques like yoga and Zumba are also excellent ways to release endorphins, the mood-boosting neurotransmitters, in the body. Undoubtedly, physical activities by burning off excess calories and relieving stress, are an excellent way to stay happy.
  3. Communicate with loved ones: During the recovery process, effective communication with loved ones is essential to overcome emotional hurdles. Staying in touch with friends and family is important, as this will help a person in sharing his or her fears, doubts and uncertainties with his or her loved ones. It is also important to instill positivity and inspire the person to continue walking on the path of sobriety.
  4. Have patience: One should remember that sobriety can’t be attained in a single day. It requires an individual to stay positive and firm on his or her decision to recover from alcohol addiction. A person should not consider the goal to be impossible and leave the path midway. Instead, he or she should stick firmly to his or her decision by enduring symptoms and undergoing the process patiently.

    It is important to always remember that though certain goals take time, once achieved they can change one’s life completely. Therefore, appreciating even the smallest of achievements can help in staying motivated and positive.

  5. Set goals: A person under recovery should set certain attainable and realistic goals to stay motivated and inspired. It is equally important to ensure that the goals set by the person are well planned or broken into smaller achievable tasks to avoid any kind of overburden on him or her.

Quit alcohol to rediscover life

A person going through the process of recovery from an alcohol addiction should avoid going to places where it is easily available since it increases the risk of relapse. Staying happy is an excellent way to boost one’s mental health and to ensure that he or she sticks to his or her goals to attain sobriety. Apart from these, it is also important to focus on self-help instead of seeking help from others to fasten the recovery process.

Source by Barbara Odozi

A Simple Golf Swing, Can Fix Your Wicked Slice in 7 Minutes with 4 Changes & You’ll Be in The 80’s

Bam.. You nailed it. You have just teed off on the first tee with your normal playing partners. And,yes, you did, you nailed it. Straight down the middle and .. wait it long also, WOW, you have absolutely pounded it long and straight. Holy mackerel!!

You have just, for the first time, demonstrated that you can cure the slice. That you can hit it long and straight and that you can experience the pure joy and satisfaction that others have with your own golf game. And, before this round is over you will be well on your way to shooting in the 80′ using your new ” Simple Golf Swing”

This scenario seems almost impossible for most Golfers who suffer from the ” big slice”! By now many of you have found a way to ” get it around” you have made adjustments in your set up and your swing and most certainly in your expectations. But still, you suffer from the affliction. So let’s do this.

You make sure you remember your adjustments. Make sure you have them written down or seared into your brain. Let’s not risk making your game worse. You promise to remember your adjustments. I promise if you do what follows, you can forget them asap. Deal?

Warning… What you are about to read, you will not like. Only a very small percent of you will actually do these 4 things that will cure your slice. It’s not because they are hard to do, heck 2 of them you do without even moving. It’s because change is very hard in Golf. So accept that. And just try.

It will not be easy. But it is what it is. If you want to fix the slice, you are at the right place.

There are 4 general reasons for a slice.

1. Grip

2. Alignment or setup

3. Swing path

4. Swing plane

One or all of these can create the big banana. That big left to right slinger that just keeps on a go’n!

1. Here is a quicky grip. Left hand first. You need to be able to see two knuckles when you look down at your left hand on the club. Most people want to put this hand on the side of the club. That is dead wrong. It goes more on top. More ! NO .. that is not enough MORE. Whew!

Jeez… I hope you did it.

Now the right hand.. it’s easy! It’s the same! It belongs more on top than you think. Now here, there is a very good reason for the location of the right hand.

It will not do to get into that here in a short article. Trust me for a while. More on top. Make sure that you feel some pressure on your index finger on the inside where the club is resting. Like a trigger finger. Got it?

It feels like crap! I know. I know. I know… and I am sorry. But it is very important that you at least try as hard as you can to do this. So do it!

2. And here is the setup.. Just get square to the target line. Every part of your body. Shoulders are in line with your hips, hips are inline with your knees, knees are inline with your feet. And your feet your in an exact parallel position with the line of fire or the target line. Simple.

Try to avoid aligning to the left. That is one of your adjustments that we are not going to do for now.

If anything we are going err to the right, not the left.

OK your back is reasonable straight. you bend at the hips with the knees bent enough so that they are about lined up with the top of your shoes. Your hands and arms are hanging straight down from your shoulders, let this happen. And your chin is not resting on your chest. Your weight is spread 50/50 on your feet.

Here’s a little trick. After you are set up. Turn your right elbow in so that it points at your right hip. This will help you get the club on it’s correct path. ( just do it)

Note: at this point you have a good grip. And just so you know, there has never been a good player with a bad grip. Just so you know. Anyway at this point you have your new grip and you are well set up and so that cover two out of four. And guess what you haven’t moved a single inch yet. But you are 50% cured.

3. OK I am going to switch 3 and 4. Swing plane is where actual shaft of the club is located during the swing. It is an angle. The angle relative to the ground. It is dependent on your set up. It is generally the same angle as your spine angle. So your set up, if correct, will give you your correct swing plane. You may have heard the terms” plane angle is too steep” or ” plane angle is too flat” these terms describe where the club( the whole club) is, on a plane relative to the ground.

Imagine a circle. If the circle was straight up and down and you stood in the middle that plane would be 90 degrees to the ground. If we began to tip the circle, moving the top behind you, we would be creating what the swing plane looks like.

Now let’s say that your shoulders are the top of the circle. Standing straight up will create a plane that is parallel to the ground. As you bend your hips and knees your shoulders will move forward, creating a different plane than the straight up and down on.. Do you see this yet? And as you get into your set up, you will be creating your swing plane. See why the setup is so important. Being on Plane in your golf swing is very very important.

Yet it is something that will take care of itself if you setup correctly. You just need to know what it is, not how to do it.

All right .. I know I am losing some of you. So let’s stop with the swing plane for now. Except for this. It is necessary for you to be aware of it. If you set up well and turn the shoulders on the takeaway you will have accomplished the proper plane. Providing you don’t do something with the hands that will change that. Oh My!

4. Path, Clubhead path..What it is. It is the path the actual clubhead takes from the top of the back swing, down and to the ball, and then through to the finish. It is not a straight line. It is more around than you would think. It is somewhat determined by your swing plane. Flat is more around and steep is more upright.

And it is all relative to the target line.

This is really where most get into trouble. It’s because of the other three elements. Grip is wrong, setup is wrong and then the swing plane is wrong. It’s lot to expect that you can get the swing path right in spite of the other three being wrong. You can’t.

The clubhead path should be inside to out or inside to inside, depends on who is talking.

Most who slice the ball or hit it dead left ( same problem) are hitting from outside to inside. Or what you may know as the ” over the top move” many instructors will blame this on a poor weight shift.

But the real culprit here is in the details of the other 3.

In order to hit a draw or not hit a slice the swing path on the downswing must, absolutely must be from the inside of the target line.

You can do this by visualizing a line on the ground that is coming from the inside, and making the clubhead go there. Make it go there. Hit the inside of the golf ball and try as hard as you can to hit it into right field.

So , here we go. After you have 1,2, correct. You take the club away with your shoulders. Turn to the right with them. Take the clubhead with you. Keep your head centered. Turn until your left shoulder is under your chin. Let the clubhead go where ever it wants as long as you are turning it with your shoulders.

Once you have reached your best turn position. Keep you back to the target as long as you can. ( very important) and now the magic move. Drop your right elbow to your right side and fire your right hand DOWN at the inside of the golf ball .. from the inside of the target line. Give absolutely no consideration at all to weight shift. It will happen. You have two and only two responsibilities at this point. Hit down and hit from the inside. Hands and arms go first and nothing else matters. And while you are doing this ” keep your back to the target as long as you can” If you do that, you will not be able to do that dreaded over the top move. Inside. Hit down.

Now go to the range. I know it took more than 7 minutes. Sorry. For more resources see below.

Source by Paul Macleod

Drone Use In The Marine and Yachting Environment


Modern Drones are incredible machines that are capable of doing amazing things in the marine and yachting environment. They can be used to spot schools of fish, locate a mooring or open area in a marina to drop anchor, locate an assigned slip, preview an unspoiled beach or island, locate items or persons that dropped overboard, capture great video and still photos of the boat either at anchor or underway, or even drop safety or other equipment to remote locations.

However, Drones need to he handled differently when used in the terrestrial or land use environments, in addition to specific models that are better suited for the marina and yachting environments.

1: Types and Models of Drones

There are a number of issues that should be considered when selecting a Drone for this environment: DJI and Yuneec make a number of Drones capable of use in this environment. The Splash Drone is waterproof and makes a great Drone for this environment. GoPro and DJI have just introduced small new models that “fold” and fit in small backpacks and are capable of flying for 20+ minutes in 20+ knots of wind!

A: Size – consider how and where you will store your Drone aboard your yacht – on a bunk, in a storage locker, in the cockpit. The Drone should be stored in a safe location where guests and crew will not drop items on the Drone or knock or kick the Drone.

B: Flight Time – consider flight time and battery capability. Small Drones may have less then 10 minutes flight time while bigger Drones fly up to 25 minutes. For casual videos, 10 minutes flight time may be enough, however if you plan to use the Drone to locate schools of fish or remote moorings, then consider purchasing a Drone with longer flight times.

C: Camera- Many Drones come equipped with their own camera, while others are able to make use of external cameras like a Gopro or DSLR. Included cameras range from low resolution with images stored on a memory card while others are capable of 4K resolution (broadcast quality) and relaying live images via WIFI to a smart phone, tablet, or controller LCD screens. External cameras generally offer the owner more options and higher resolutions, but may not be fully integrated with the included controller system.

An example is the Yuneec Typhoon G set up to use the GoPro Hero3 or 4 4K cameras. This is a great set up capable of unusually stable video in most windy conditions. However, while the operator can see what the camera sees on the Typhoon controller LCD screen, the controller is not able to control any of the features of the GoPro camera- and the operator needs to activate the video record button on the GoPro prior to taking off and then can only shut off video recording after the Drone is retrieved. Integrated cameras usually can be controlled from the controller.

D: Ability to handle windy conditions – This is a significant issue that operators need to keep in mind when purchasing a Drone. Many of the small and older Drones, like an older Parrot AR Drone or a newer SYMA X5SW Drone lack many features and do not have the capability to stabilize flight when faced with more then 5-10 knots of wind. Additionally, these Drones do not have stabilized gimbled camera mounts to smooth out the wobble and gyrations in windy conditions. Larger Drones and Drones with better electronic systems and gimbled camera mounts aboard have better high wind video capabilities.

E: Retrievable – many small Drones do not have “home” capability and are difficult to land in any condition. Most new Drones have a highly developed “home” capability and are able to land back to their starting location automatically.

Most, if not all Drones today, utilize GPS. Other Drones use a hand-held or wrist mounted device so the Drone can “home in” on the controller or other device location. Newer Drones incorporate a combination of Optical Recognition and the GPS location of the controller. The latest DJI Drone has a down-looking camera that takes thousands of photos as it takes off and then compares the photos to the landing location. In my opinion, this is fantastic technology if you are using the Drone from a moving yacht or boat!

Another feature that newer Drones incorporate is object collision technology that allows the Drone to “see” and avoid ships sides, radar arches, and other structures that may interfere with the flight or landing.

2. Safe Use of a Drone aboard – A Drone is a robot that uses high powered motors to turn propellers – propellers that are capable of significant harm in the event that the Drone makes contact with the operator or guests aboard. Operators must be aware of who is near the Drone, both taking off and landing. Additionally, operators must avoid hitting radar arches, outriggers, flags, fly bridges and other yacht and ship structures. Operators must be sure to plan how they will use the Drone – from the bow, from the stern, from an open bridge or bridge top.

3. Safe Storage of A Drone Aboard – I highly recommend that a padded soft or hard case be used to transport and store a Drone aboard a yacht, boat or ship. Bringing a Drone aboard a yacht, boat or ship without storage protection is asking for damage to happen.

4. Maintenance of Your Drone While Aboard – Be sure to include a small tool kit with tools for use on a Drone: small pliers and screw drivers, small Allen wench set, spare screws, small wrench set, nuts and propeller locks, propeller removal tool, small pocket knife, zip ties, tape, terminal cleaning spray, silicon spray to protect your Drone from salt water and salt air, etc. A large fresh water spray bottle will be needed to wash off salt water in the event your Drone goes swimming!

Be sure to add spare propellers – lots of them – spare landing feet, spare CHARGED batteries, 12V AND 110V battery, battery connect cables, spare controller batteries and/or controller charger and spare propeller guards.

5. Drone Limits While Piloting a Drone Over Water – The operator MUST be aware of their battery use and flying time of their Drone. Most controllers show the battery charge level of the Drone. At 50% level, I highly recommend that the operator initiate the return process for retrieving the Drone or the Drone may go for a swim! Additionally, the operator should attach a stopwatch to the controller so that the operator is aware of the flight time.

Keep in mind, that while launching the Drone is relatively quick and easy, landing and retrieving the Drone can be very challenging and consume all of the remaining battery capacity.

6. Drone Batteries – most, if not all batteries used for Drones and their controllers are LIPO batteries and are subject to generating a great deal of heat and require very specific charging and storage techniques. LIPO batteries should be transported in special foil packages and definitely not in the Drone. Special chargers are required to charge LIPO batteries. Additionally, it may take up to 2 hours to recharge depleted batteries so the Drone operator should be sure primary and spare batteries are charged when the operator and Drone arrive aboard. The Operator should allow enough time to recharge the batteries after use. Operators should consider purchasing a multi-battery charger.

7. Use of Smart phones and tablets – Operators should practice how to link up the drone to their Smartphone and /or tablets of the Drones controller. Onboard a moving vessel is not the time to get acquainted with how the operators Drone works. It is especially important if the operator is using a GoPro camera since the operator will need to learn the WiFi “pairing” procedure so that the Drone, Controller and GoPro camera communicate.

A Screen Hood is a must have accessory for operating a Drone in bright sunlight! Operators should know how to attach the hood to the device and how to use the touch pad with the hood in place.

Operators should consider adding a lanyard attached to the controller – prevents losing the controller overboard and allows the operator to use both hands to work with the Drone during landing.

8. Use of Propeller Protector Guards – I highly recommend operators make use of propeller guards on their Drone. They are available from most manufacturers or from 3rd party vendors. Most simply snap in place, like the guards for the Yuneec Typhoon G, while others, like the propeller guards for the SYMA series, require very small Phillips head screws and screwdriver for attachment.

Not only will the guards prevent the Drone’s propellers from harming guests and crew, but they also aid in avoiding the Drone becoming tangled in sailboat standing and running rigging, fishing boat outriggers, radar arches, radio antennas and domes, navigation lights, and safety rails! Propeller guards are a MUST HAVE accessory!

9. Drone recover Strategies for Windy Conditions – Drones are difficult, if not impossible to safely land in windy conditions. In most cases, the operator either hits the “home” button and hopes for the best. Another technique is to line up the Drone overhead and “drop the Drone out of the sky” hoping it will land on the deck or cockpit.

An alternative technique is for the operator to “hover” the Drone within the operators reach and then the operator simply grab the landing gear and bring the Drone down. The operator should be sure to wear gloves as the operator could easily get a finger cut from the propellers.

Another technique is to attach a thin weighted line to the Drone so that when the Drone is close, the operator simply grabs the line and “pull down” the Drone.

New Drones include Optical Recognition cameras and software that should have the capability of landing the Drone in very windy conditions and onto a moving yacht or ship.

Keep in mind that in windy conditions or if you are operating on a moving yacht or even a passenger cruise ship, you may need to fly the Drone out in front of the yacht or ship and then let the Drone “drift” back into landing position while slowly bringing the Drone down to the deck. I witnessed a Drone operator attempting to land his Drone on a cruise ship that was moving at 20+ knots. Instead of employing the above technique, the operator panicked because his Drone battery was running low (!!) and attempted to land the Drone by moving the Drone mid-ship and then flying the Drone sideways to land on the upper deck. The operator had absolutely no control trying to run sidewise in 20+ knots of wind and totally destroyed his $4,000 drone when is crashed into the steel upper structure of the cruise ship!

Conclusion: Drones are magnificent tools for yachting or marine use, however, operators must be aware of their limits, set up procedures, safety, have the required tools and spare parts aboard to fully enjoy and make us of Drones incredible capabilities.

Source by Randall Burg

Vocabulary Development Powered By Film Credits For ESL Learners

“When all think alike, then no one is thinking.” – Walter Lippman

The development of technology plays a highly vibrant part in media evolution from outmoded to contemporary technology presentations for its messages to reach every individual consumers. As a result, the media does changes which are evidently observed among its genre such as films that manifest complex structures to impress audience. Furthermore, it can be perceived that from films’ posters to their end credits, are unseen factors which tend to be highly pedagogical for English language acquisition when imaginatively and seriously handled by language educators. This inventive awareness anchors with the theory of audio- visual literacy which supports the said material for the enhancement of learners’ linguistic and communicative competence. This concept fetches us to a solid idea that every film’s features do not only function as purely entertainment but are possibly noteworthy in language achievement. In other words, every element it possesses may interrelate or unfold instructional strategies. One of its significant components is the end credits known as a list not limited to the cast and crew of a motion picture found at its ending. To be able to explicate its pedagogical value, an example of it is lifted from a movie, Edge of Darkness. The motion picture’s final credits were dissected as inputs for innovative vocabulary teaching through series of constructed tasks’ interplaying with single words, collocations, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

The Springboard

The material is an edited end credits of the film Edge of Darkness produced in 2010 by the film outfit, Warner Bros.

Edited Cast

Mel Gibson – Mr. Tom Craven Bojana Novakovic – Emma Craven, Mr. Craven’s daughter Damian Young – Senator Jim Pine Caterina Scorsone – Melissa Wayne Duvall – Chief of Police Gbenga Akinnagbe – Detective Darcy Jones Paul Sparks – Northampton Police Detective Christy Scott Cashman – Detective Vicki Hurd

Gordon Peterson – interviewer

Timothy Sawyer -Dr. Sawyer

Molly Schreiber – reporter

Charles Harrington – neighbor

Lisa Hughes – news anchor

Charlie Alejandro – Boston Police officer

Cindi Alex – driver

Terry Conforti -wife of Senator Pine

Nicholas Grava -basketball player

Dan Marshall – hospital visitor

Robert Masiello -businessman

Gary Roscoe -newsroom editor

Edward Stanley -Radio Reporter

Vyvian Stevens -Tom Craven’s friend

Darryl Wooten -TV News reporter

Adam Zalt -business traveler

Edited Crew

Film Director – Martin Campbell

TV and Movie Screenplays writers -William Monahan, Andrew Bovell

and Troy Kennedy-Martin

Producer – Tim Headington and Graham King

Co-executive producers- Jamie Laurenson, Gail Lyon, Lucienne Papon, and Kwame Parker

Musical scorer – Howard Shore

Cinematography – Phil Meheux

Film editor – Stuart Baird

Casting manager- Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman

Production Designer -Thomas Sanders

Art Director – Greg berry Greg Berry, Mark Satterlee, and Suzan Wexler

Set Decorator – Jay hart

Costume Designer -Lindy Hemming

Makeup Artist-Marleen Alter

Props man- Gary Alioto (carpenter)

Sound mixer -James Ashwill

Special effects technician -John baker

Visual effects artists -Stella Ampatzi, Suzette Barnett

Stunt performers -Charlie Alejandro, Rick Avery, Dean Bailey Peter Bucossi, and Jared Burke

Film location Manager – Gregory Alpert

Location scout -Gregory Chiodo

Transportation coordinator -Mike Davis

Some suggestions

Some recommendations about this teaching process may include but not limited to these enumerated ideas. Primarily, review your institutions ‘curricula if they establish a close significance to the materials and the lessons you are planning to conduct. Your intended material should relate dominantly with the projected outcomes of your organizations’ programs and if they do, examine the end credits thoroughly if they embody the vocabularies to be prioritized. Rip the credits from the whole film which may run for a maximum of three (3) minutes or less to suit the timeframe of your specific lesson. Play and pause the video of it during the discussion. You can simplify the credits according to students’ needs before you deliberate. It is suggested that you construct a diagram or a schema to relate covered words. Teach vocabularies anchored with the strategies being introduced in Cambridge English teachers’ courses such as illustration, pictures, word structures, mime, word association, word classification, context, synonyms/antonyms/hyponyms, definition, translation, realia, among others. In the event that you decide to modify the activities, it is proposed that you base your instructions from the taxonomy of objectives under the (6) six order thinking skills where they fall. By doing this, each activity’s direction will function as your future upshots. Be aware that vocabulary learning deals with words, phrases, collocations and sentences. Produce a copy of the instructional input to be distributed or as an alternative, display a model onscreen while activities are being performed. To add, note that while activities are being completed, varied expressions will emerge to form the entirety of learned languages. When time constraint hampers activity engagement, some tasks may not be covered. It is suggested that you choose the necessary task/s that you can administer under a prescribed teaching session.

The Vocabulary Exercises

These are recommended designed tasks that one can employ, modify or pattern in vocabulary instructions out of a film’s end credits. Additionally, some implications of each activity are practically discussed in relation to how leaners attain vocabularies while the rests of the exercises exude important rudiments of language acquisition as they are completed.

1. Construct two rows and classify female and male actors from the credits. Others were done for you.

Female Actors

1. Bojana Novakovic

2. Lisa Hughes

3. Molly Schreiber

Male Actors

1. Damian Young

2. Wayne Duvall

3. Mel Gibson

This activity implies a simple stage of learning wherein students are made to write, list, tell, point out, repeat or cite details. In relation to vocabulary development, students will be able to realize that words are composed of details, belong to a group, and are either general or specific. In accomplishing this, students are being exposed to the terms that they will soon be involved with.

2. Match Column A and Column B to relate individual cast’s role in the film production.

Column A

1. Mel Gibson

2. Robert Masiello

3. Bojana Novakovic

4. Caterina Scorsone

5. Lisa Hughes

6. Molly Schreiber

7. Wayne Duvall

8. Gbenga Akinnagbe

9. Paul Sparks

10. Charles Harrington

Column B

a. detective Darcy Jones

b. reporter

c. Emma Craven

d. chief of police

e. a news anchor

f. businessman

g. Melissa

h. neighbor

i. Northampton Police Detective

j. Mr. Tom Craven

This has the same level with activity number (1) one. Additionally, it provides the thought that each word corresponds to another even if they are represented by persons’ names, similar to the common understanding that each word has corresponding function/s. While they relate each word, there are expressions that will surface to be manipulated in connecting ideas. For example, “Mel Gibson acts as Mr. Craven,” “Mel Gibson’s role is Mr. Craven,” “Mr. Gibson’s role in the film is Mr. Craven.” The words such as, acts, role, in, film emerged due to how ideas are going to be connected adding to the targeted expressions. At this point, we are made to understand that even a single word adds as an acquired vocabulary due to the functions it demonstrates under linguistically framed statements.

3. Fill-in the two columns to relate crew member’s specific role in the film production. Five has been done for you.

Column A

Film Production Roles

1. Film Director

2. Screenplay writer

3. Film editor

4. Casting managers

5. Special effects technician

Column B

Film Crew Members

1. Martin Campbell

2. William Monahan, Andrew Bovell, and

Troy Kennedy-Martin

3. Stuart Baird

4. Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman

5. John Baker

This exercise exposes the students to vocabularies regarding the crew’s roles and that relating the positions with the names will activate the utilization of additional languages. Furthermore, while they create relationships, learners are motivated to find out what these positions are all about by teachers’ facilitation. To demonstrate, students connect the film director to Martin Campbell by the notion that both words-the name and the position refer to only one person. As a consequence, the students formulate a statement by the intervention of other expressions. Thus, in the first attempt, “Film director is Martin Campbell.” In the second try, they invert by saying “Martin Campbell is director.” The statements have missing words as noticed. With teachers’ guidance, new expressions may arise leading to the formulation of linguistically correct responses. “The director is Martin Campbell,” or “Martin Campbell is the Director.” In a higher level, they would say, “The director of the film is Martin Campbell,” or “The film’s director is Martin Campbell,” or “The film director of the Edge of Darkness is Martin Campbell.” This activity illustrates an orderly increase of vocabularies through activated words to operate the target lexes.

4. Correct the words used to express the actors and their roles by placing appropriate articles- a, an, or the.

1. Molly Schreiber as an reporter

2. Charles Harrington as an neighbor

3. Lisa Hughes as an news anchor

4. Charlie Alejandro as Boston police officer

5. Cindi Alex as an driver

6. Terry Conforti as wife of senator Pine

7. Nicholas Grava as an basketball player

8. Dan Marshall as an hospital visitor

9. Robert Masiello as businessman

10. Gary Roscoe as an newsroom editor

11. Christy Scott Cashman as a Detective Vicki Hurd

12. Gordon Peterson as a interviewer

13. Timothy Sawyer as the Dr. Sawyer

5. Circle the appropriate word/s or phrases under the enclosed series to complete the sentences.

a. Film is similar to (script, movie, camera, shoot).

b. Cast composes (performance, performers, performing, perform) in the film.

c. Crew delivers (technical supports, acting, transportation, cinematography) generally.

d. Cinematographer is a (cameraman, gripper, scout, writer) who takes shots.

e. Screenplay writer is also a (scriptwriter, film editor, director, producer).

f. End credits are found (between, in the end, in the beginning, in the middle) of a film.

g. Producers (finances, finance, performs, fiancé) film productions.

h. Director mainly does (directing, stunts, producing, acting) assignments.

i. Actors are (performers, actresses, viewers, set decorators) in movies.

j. Opening credits are (found in between the first and the last, found at the end, found in the beginning, found after the middle) of the film.

k. Filming is (making films, done films, planned films, editing films).

l. Makeup artists beautify (directors’, producers’, cameramen’s, cast’s) faces.

m. Film script is the (story, title, credits, loglines) of the movie.

n. Stars are the (main actors, stunts, extras, locations) performing in films.

o. Film outfit is a (company, costumes, costume, musical score) of movies.

p. Musical scorer provides (background music, story, shots, posters) for the film.

6. Classify the words according to names of jobs, skills, and film materials or equipment and write statements using them according to their given forms.

(1) cinematography (2) cinematographer (3) decorating (4) acting (5) casting (6) scouting (7) scripts (8) director (9) directing (10) Editing (11) animating (12) special effects director (13) movie camera (14) coordinating (15) film editor

7. Complete the sentences using the given end credits- related words.

directed -directs- direct- directing- films- filmed- filming- film editing-

film edition- direction – see a film- who’s in- stars- starred-producers-

script- film location- makeup artist- musical scorer- casting director- set decorator

1. Motion pictures are also known as ________.

2. The film______________ academy award-wining actors a year ago.

3. Did Martin Campbell________ that acclaimed movie?

4. A director _________ how actors will perform.

5. He is ________ the current film.

6. He ________ the famous movie Edge of Darkness in 2010.

7. ___________support film making financially. producer

8. The cast and crew are now ___________ the movie in Australia.

9. That was________ in Italy.

10. After he carefully did _______________, the motion picture was shown.

11. He showed an outstanding ____________. Critics praised his film.

12. Actors have to memorize the dialogues found in the __________.

13. My brother wanted to ________ about the space.

14. Charlize Theron ________ as an underdog friend in her current film.

15. Please see the _____________. Something is wrong with your hair.

16. The ___________should match the music with the film’s theme.

17. The ___________found performers that can justify the given roles.

18. __________ this movie? Could it be Kevin Costner?

19. He studied__________in London.

20. Location managers search for _________.

21. ________don’t have serious flaws.

8. Read the position- job connected words. Mark √ when you agree and × if you disagree.

(1)director-directs film (2) producer-producing film (3) actor-acting roles (4) screenplay writer-writing film script (5) makeup artist- decorating sets (6) film editor- writing script (7) cinematographer-taking shots (8) casting manager-editing films (9) producer-editing screenplays (10) art director- managing film setting (12) set decorator-transporting crew (13) costume designer-designing outfits (14) sound mixer- combining sounds (15) special effects technician -creating effects (16) stunt performers -doing film tricks (17) film location manager- deciding actors to play roles (18) musical scorer- finding places to film (19) location scout-searching for places to shoot (20) transportation coordinator -moving crews from one location to another to shoot.

9. Correct the factual mistakes if there are any in the sentences below.

a. The producers are the performers in the film’s story.

b. The director writes the screenplay.

c. The makeup artist takes shots in film making.

d. The film editor looks for talents to perform roles.

e. A movie outfit is a company where products are made.

f. Props men do film directing jobs.

g. Set decorators furnish shooting settings to look like they are real.

h. Costume designers belong to the cast.

i. Sound mixers combine needed music during the editing of films.

j. Visual effects technician scout for places to shoot movies.

k. Stunt performers provide visual effects in the film.

l. Scriptwriters create film stories.

m. Warner Bros. is a film outfit.

10. Transform the given verbs into nouns.

(1) directing (2) cinematographic (3) scripting (4) producing (5) edited (6) decorated (7) scored (8) starring (9) filmed (10) write (11) designed (12) transported (13) mixed (14) scouted (15) shoot (16) visualizing (17) performer (18) performed (19) located (20) manages

11. Transform the given nouns into verbs.

(1) producer (2) director (3) score (4) script (5) decorator (6) edition (7) script (8) editor (9) film (10) location (11) star (12) direction (13) animator (14) decorator (15) location (16) costume (17) manager (18) mixer (19) coordinator (20) actor

12. Create a brief definition by using the given words. Use present simple tenses and be able to supply some missing prepositions.

1. A scriptwriter/ write/ script/ films.

2. A director/ direct / actors/films.

3. A cameraman/take/shots/ make/films.

4. Set decorators/ enhances/ beginning / end/ settings.

5. Producers/finances/ the making/ films.

13. Find the words that best complete the phrases from the list. Be guided by the enclosed word/s in each number and the prepositions that signal the correct missing expressions.

Princess Latifah – a biographical film- film making-a raging dragon- urban Australia -Meryl Streep- Winter- the Oscars- daybreak- 20th Century Fox- 1977- a burning building-Martin Scorsese- a witch-films

1. Filming in (season )

2. Filming at (unspecified time )

3. Produced by (outfit or production)

4. Directed in (specified time)

5. Performed a stunt in (film scene)

6. Decorated a set for ( director’s name)

7. Was cast as (role)

8. Starred in (film title)

9. Scripted the story of (type of film)

10. A degree in (a specialization)

11. Special effects of (animated character)

12. Shot the film in (specific place)

13. Designed costume of (an actress)

14. A film that was nominated at ( award-giving body)

15. Acted in (media genre)

14. Complete the missing words in the dialogue. Be guided by the end credits’ contents.

Ali: What’s on at the cinema today?

Fahad: There’s a film on called _____________.

Ali: What kind of _______is it?

Fahad: It’s a suspense thriller.

Ali: Who are in it?

Fahad: ____________ and__________ among other

popular stars.

Ali: What film outfit is it?

Fahad: It’s from _________________.

Ali: Tell me more about the movie.

Fahad: It has a good___________for it features outstanding camera

works from _________________.

Ali: He’s really a talented _____________.

Fahad: Indeed!

Ali: Who wrote the _______________ of it?

Fahad: They’re _________. ________, and_________.

These three are skilled screenplay writers.

Ali: Okay, let’s see that film tomorrow.

Fahad: See you there.

15. Underline the correct meaning of each given statement.

1. 4 years ago, he did a BA in Film Directing degree successfully at Texas State University.

a. He studied film directing for three years at TSU.

b. He had a seminar in film directing at TSU.

c. He’s studying at Texas State University.

d. He studied and attained BA degree in Film Directing at TSU.

2. The scriptwriter wrote a script revolving around the theme of war.

a. The film’s story is about war.

b. The film’s story will be about war.

c. The film’s subject is on war.

d. Both a and c

3. He starred as a patriot in an award-winning motion picture in 2014.

a. He was with a patriot in a 2014 film.

b. His role was a patriot in an acclaimed film in 2014.

c. His performance was too much of a patriot in 2014.

d. Both a and b.

4. Cinematographic works result to audiovisuals.

a. Cinematographic works cater to the hearing and sights of audience.

b. Cinematographic works create photographs only.

c. Cinematographic works are understood using the eyes and ears.

d. Both a and c.

5. Film crew composes mainly technical support in film making.

a. Film crew performs basically supporting roles film making.

b. Film crew performs major and supporting roles in film making

c. Film crew does mainly mechanical backup in film making.

d. Both a and c

6. The stuntman covered-up a stunt for the actor.

a. The stuntman and the actor did a stunt together.

b. The stuntman substituted the stunt of the actor.

c. The actor did a stunt for the stuntman who failed to perform.

d. The actor was given a covered gift by the stuntman.

16. Complete the paragraph by placing the appropriate words in the blanks. Read the film credits before deciding responses from the provided list.

-film editor-story-credit-crew-casting managers- special effects-directed-producers- screenplays- film- performers-stars-cast- location manager- cinematography- Suzette Barnett

This _________ (1) is entitled Edge of Darkness shot in 2010. Its_______ (2) are composed of cast and __________ (3). The cast composes the __________(4) of the film while the crew is responsible for the different production’s technical part. The ________ (5) includes Mel Gibson and Bojana Novakovic as father and daughter. It was __________ (6) by Martin Campbell in cooperation with Tim Headington and Graham King as _______. The film had TV and movie ________ (7) which were written by William Monahan, Andrew Bovell and Troy Kennedy-Martin. Also, this movie contained outstanding camera works of Phil Meheux which showcased his skill in ____________ (8). Being the ________(9), Stuart Baird made it a point that the film runs sequentially for audience to understand the __________(10) during the final editing. It was also made successfully through Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman as ____________ (11) who cast fine________ (12) that can truly justify given roles. In terms of ___________ (13), the featured scenes were so real due to the artistic craft of Stella Ampatzi and___________ (14). Finally, Gregory Alpert as a ____________ (15) added impact to the movie through great locations that established the story’s theme and real-life settings.

17. Create hyponyms of the given words then deliver a talk about any of these.

(1) Film ( 2) actors (3) cast (4) crew (5) film outfits

18. Construct a movie poster by writing the cast and crew then deliver a talk regarding their positions and roles.

While it is observed that these several activities expose students to varied terms in film making manifesting content-based language learning approach, the intrusion of other expressions in the employment of this type of material aids to broaden the linguistic scope by allowing more words, phrases, collocations and sentences that aren’t limited to this field. Consider the fact that while vocabularies are learned, many essential language points for the completion of the given tasks interfere. The teachers’ strategic measures of incorporating these surfacing expressions could yield students’ varied languages in which they can further extend to garner additional lexes supported by other naturally developing terminologies that are communicatively probable. These prevailing situations shouldn’t be ignored due to their content and functional rudiments in coining words and statements linguistically. Likewise, repetitions of words that recur in the exercises were created primarily for learners’ language exposures to give way for comprehension.

Source of edited film credit: http://www. imdb. com/title/tt1226273/fullcredits?ref_=tt_ql_1

Source by Marvin Wacnag Lidawan

The History of Rum

An early alcoholic drink, rum has been around since ancient times. Nothing if not old, it is practically forced to walk with a (sugar) cane. Though it wasn’t first distilled in plantations until the 17th century, rum is believed to have existed thousands of years prior in the form of brum, a drink made by the Malay people. In the 14th century, Marco Polo (the explorer, not the swimming pool game) wrote about a wine made of sugar, giving further credence to the belief that rum was around before the 1600’s.

When the first distillation of rum began, it began in the Caribbean when plantation slaves realized the molasses, left over from sugar refinement, could be turned into alcohol. This alcohol, however, was not well received…at least not at first. Like the beginning of most things, the beginning of rum was a little shaky and the spirit was dispirited to learn that it was initially thought to be a terrible tasting liquor.

Once the Caribbean set the rum ball in motion, it quickly spread to the American Colonies. In 1664, the first distillery for rum was set up in what is now Staten Island; a distillery in Boston quickly followed.

New Englanders had a special penchant for making rum; not only was the rum industry their most profitable industry, but the rum they produced was considered to be of higher quality than all others.

An alcoholic drink determined to have a place in history – even the dark parts of history – rum was involved in the slave trade, as slaves, molasses, and rum were part of the triangular trade. When this trade was interrupted because of the 1764 Sugar Act, another straw was thrown on the American Colonists back. Thus, bottles of rum can often be overhead bragging to bottles of wine and bottles of whiskey that they were the reason for the American Revolution.

More than any other alcoholic drink, rum was associated with pirates (yo ho ho and a bottle of rum, anyone?). This initially started when English privateers began trading it. As some of these men eventually became pirates (aim high, kids), they carried with them their liking of rum. Pieces of literature that coupled rum and piracy perpetuated this notion.

Rum was also associated with the British Royal Navy, an association that began in 1655 when Jamaica was captured by British sailors. Once ashore, rum was so available that the seamen began drinking it instead of the brandy to which they were accustomed.

The refinement of rum began in the place it all started: the Caribbean. Prior to the late 1800’s, rums were dark and heavy. The Spanish Royal Development Board set out to make rum more appealing to the general public and offered a reward for anyone who could improve its quality. And so enter Don Facundo Bacardi Masso.

After moving to Cuba from Spain in 1843, Masso began to refine his rumming techniques. He improved distillation, filtering, and aging in casks made of American oak. This all worked together to produce a rum that was light and smooth, a spirit that today we have come to love, to drink, and one that makes our senses rumble.

Source by Jennifer Jordan